Defining people as civilians affirms a protected group identityor huge and infinite numbers of people which elevates them above the fight human beings have tried to limit war, famine, drought, and torture and preserve as many lives as possible. The soldier who let people by was accurately portrayed by the slogan “even war has limits” . The Red Cross was founded in Geneva, Switzerland. Lieber’s code is the importance of military victory is unambigious and the power to trump non-combant rights when it is needed in the situation. General orders have always been given to see who shall be killed or saved due to the generals’ control of the army. Geneva conventions have a misconstrued view of war crimes as killing civilians is not seen in some circumstances as not a crime according to the third Geneva convention held and also talks about the affects of civilians in terrible situations.
the first genocide was the homosapiens exterminated the Neanderthals. The History of the Pelosponnesian Wars had an example of genocide when they massacred the melos and the book also explained the challenges and problems of the genocide. The Hebrews wanted to eliminate everybody on their supposed “land” due to god saying that this is their rightful land. They tarnished cities, temples, cultures and much more. The Israelites commited cultural genocide, which is wiping out an entire culture. The Israelites are not the only people to commit cultural genocide as groups like the Edomites and others. Another civilization that committed genocide was the Acheans. They slaughtered the city of Troy after a two day assault and ten years of the war. The chapter talked about the definition of the genocide and how not every military conquest was a genocide as genocide is a targeted killing of people who have a certain religion, race or beliefs like the famous genocides that are famous to us. The chapter also discussed the relationship between Rome and Carthage as Carthage could live with Rome but Rome refused to let Carthage live in the meditarrean and in the congress, members of the congress would changed “Destroy Carthage”. Rome invaded Carthage and despite Carthage surrendering, they refused to take their surrender and ended up massacring the population.
Chapters 2,3,4,5,6 about the killing, injury and rape in chapter 2. The seven spheres of civilian suffering reach into those people affected by genocide. Direct personal violence of killing, wounding and torturing, the particular atrocity of rape, sexual violence and sexual exploitation, spatial suffering from forced and restricted movement such as flight, displacement, deportation, destituion, dispersal, resettlement, forced labour, confinement and detention, impoverishment, famine and disease, emotional suffering and post war suffering. Wounded and life-long injuries often outnumber civilian deaths and how many terrorist attacks like bus bombings and train bombings try to wound as many people as possible as that can affect people more physically and mentally. Toture is another major part of the suffering of people. These people are usually called spies and working with the enemy before being executed or tortured for the rest of their respective lives. Civilians are also affected by other forms of disasters like famine, disease, and impoverishment caused by certain things or events. Civilians have emotional problems with war and other terrible events as they hurt socially and psychologically. A big idea relating with this is PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) that was invented by american medics during the Vietnam war and applies to regular citizens if they were a witness to a terrorist attack. There are reasons behind why people are killed by political leaders as it related to paradoxical thinking, collective thinking, and sacrificial thinking. Purging and clearance is an evil way of trying to divide society into the good, kind people and evil people. An example of this was the crusader movement in medieval Europe where they divided the religions up and made them war against each other. Many of the atrocities committed are intended to serve a warning to people. The genocides have different variations.
The chapters 2 and 3 were about the conquests of the mongol empire and the crusaders and how war and genocide have a close connection to each other despite not every military conquest being a genocide. They talk about the three templates the Mongols used for the mass killings. The first one is presenting the target people with the choice of submitting to mongol overlordship or facing complete destruction. The second one is vanishing the people who resist subjugation but keep the useful craftsmen. The third and last one is “total elimination” which you can probably tell, kills everybody. It isn’t genocide as they didn’t target a certain group or race to eliminate. The Mongols used terror to rule their expansive empire by massacring large numbers of citizens no matter what race, gender or religion they were. The crusaders were soldiers of Christ. The crusaders used the opportunity of the pope blessing them and saying that no sin can be committed and raped, pillaged and murdered numerous people. The crusaders were known for their reckless actions throughout europe and some popes did try to control the violence but some advocated as they sent the knights all the way to Spain. The crusaders did commit numerous genocides as they had to purge the unchristianlike population of muslims as genocide means killing people for their beliefs, race or gender. The Mongols conquests were hard to define as genocides despite their cruelty. They used killing as a method for the construction of the empire, terrorizing, expand the empire, and inporcorportate people of different cultures into the empire. The crusaders killings in the near east was pretty much a genocide as they murdered anybody that wasn’t a christian but a muslim or a jew as seen in jerusalem and beziers raids. The Mongols did keep craftsmen, artisans and merchants in some
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