A History of the Armenian Genocide talks about how the origins of the genocide begun and what led up to the horrific incident. The begining talks about what group perpetuated the genocide, the turks. The Turks were tribes who came from Siberia and Central Asia who happen to speak one of the turkic language and then converted to Islam by the tenth century. The groups combined and formed what was known as the Ottoman Empire, an empire who grew from a bunch of nomadic peoples to a powerful army who was only stopped by multiple defeats from European armies. The book also discusses the conquerings of certain territories like Anatolia and the Balkans, which proceeded to become the heart of the empire. The Ottomans were known for their acceptance of races as they took refuge to the jews escaping from Spain and Portugal but they would try to have the Jews and the Armenians settled in communities that were based on religion called the Millet System. The Armenians were one of the only tribes with a long recorded history. They are a people with an Iranian-style tribal structure with borrowed paganism. They are an exclusively rural society with minimal state organization ruled by the warrior class like the Mongols but different with the elite of pagan priests and a tough kind of kingship. Foreign missionaries had a huge impact on the Armenians as they converted many Armenians and created schools to produce new professionals like the Anatolia College in Marsovan, Central Turkey College in Antep and many others. They were able to operate despite the reluctance of the Ottoman state who suspected that their mission was more political than it should be.
- Why did the turks convert to Islam?
- Did the Millet System work?
- What could the Armenian reformers have done differently?
Dunant, A Memory of Solferino is about Henry Dunant, known for being the founder of the organization Red Cross. Dunant was born in 1828 Geneva, Switzerland to a successful businessman and a man of means while his mom was a pious and gentle woman. His mother, however, had the most influence on the little Dunant and helped mold the little Dunant into the character that he became. Dunant was part of numerous small organizations in Switzerland, Belgium and france and one of those organizations was called The Young Men’s Christian Union. He helped in the Battle of Solferino in 1859 in Italy where France’s army was able to take over the city of Milan and open the gates to the city. The French then proceeded to defeat the Austrians and how the Italians perceive them as heroes and liberators from the austrians. He talked about the armies and their specific tactics in battle while also each government’s viewpoint on their respective armies and how they were perceived. Despite his fame, he ended up in a life of poverty as his long-neglected businesses had to be liquidated and for the next 20 years he wandered aimlessly like a vagrant and lived off small allowances throughout Europe. He was recognized for his work when in 1901, the Nobel peace committee awarded the first ever Peace Prize and then after that, he passed away in 1910. The article also talks about the successes of the French army in Solferino and tactics about how to take the cities and what they did to the civilians
- Why did the Red Cross get their name red cross instead of another color or another variation of the word cross
- What could Dunant have done to save his businesses or was he screwed already
- Can we learn from how Dunant lived
The chapter 7 of Killing Civilians was about the protection of civilians and how people can counter the anti – civilian forces in a war. One of the discussion points in the chapter was the book Changing Minds where the book was about how to help a pro-civilian movement try to change their movement design to make their work more effective. The six main arenas to changing people’s minds are a diverse population, a large but distinct, uniform and homogenous organization like an army, a political party or an armed group, the influential currents of artistic, scientific, religious or political thinking in a society at war, formal educational settings which form and shape individuals like schools, colleges and military training centres, an intimate family settings in war where ideas about others are created, imbibed, cherished and passed on, and the last but not the least is the people’s own individual minds. My question is how can there only be 6 methods of changing people’s minds, is there 6 main ones or numerous smaller ways to change them? The book also discusses how the civilian ethic is built on a respect for all human life and the most archaic of moral injunctions as portrayed in the quote “Thou shalt not kill”. It also states how there are positive personal rewards practicing the idea of mercy and compassion. The ideas are good for the boys fighting as it gives them a reason to keep fighting as war is quite a dehumanizing effect on people. Also discussed is being merciful as it makes the soldiers feel human again.
- What is the most effective way to help civilians overcome the anti civilian forces or are all of the ideas equal?
- Is there a limit to the restraint used in war?
- Are there any places that cannot be humanized?
Defining people as civilians affirms a protected group identityor huge and infinite numbers of people which elevates them above the fight human beings have tried to limit war, famine, drought, and torture and preserve as many lives as possible. The soldier who let people by was accurately portrayed by the slogan “even war has limits” . The Red Cross was founded in Geneva, Switzerland. Lieber’s code is the importance of military victory is unambigious and the power to trump non-combant rights when it is needed in the situation. General orders have always been given to see who shall be killed or saved due to the generals’ control of the army. Geneva conventions have a misconstrued view of war crimes as killing civilians is not seen in some circumstances as not a crime according to the third Geneva convention held and also talks about the affects of civilians in terrible situations.
the first genocide was the homosapiens exterminated the Neanderthals. The History of the Pelosponnesian Wars had an example of genocide when they massacred the melos and the book also explained the challenges and problems of the genocide. The Hebrews wanted to eliminate everybody on their supposed “land” due to god saying that this is their rightful land. They tarnished cities, temples, cultures and much more. The Israelites commited cultural genocide, which is wiping out an entire culture. The Israelites are not the only people to commit cultural genocide as groups like the Edomites and others. Another civilization that committed genocide was the Acheans. They slaughtered the city of Troy after a two day assault and ten years of the war. The chapter talked about the definition of the genocide and how not every military conquest was a genocide as genocide is a targeted killing of people who have a certain religion, race or beliefs like the famous genocides that are famous to us. The chapter also discussed the relationship between Rome and Carthage as Carthage could live with Rome but Rome refused to let Carthage live in the meditarrean and in the congress, members of the congress would changed “Destroy Carthage”. Rome invaded Carthage and despite Carthage surrendering, they refused to take their surrender and ended up massacring the population.
Chapters 2,3,4,5,6 about the killing, injury and rape in chapter 2. The seven spheres of civilian suffering reach into those people affected by genocide. Direct personal violence of killing, wounding and torturing, the particular atrocity of rape, sexual violence and sexual exploitation, spatial suffering from forced and restricted movement such as flight, displacement, deportation, destituion, dispersal, resettlement, forced labour, confinement and detention, impoverishment, famine and disease, emotional suffering and post war suffering. Wounded and life-long injuries often outnumber civilian deaths and how many terrorist attacks like bus bombings and train bombings try to wound as many people as possible as that can affect people more physically and mentally. Toture is another major part of the suffering of people. These people are usually called spies and working with the enemy before being executed or tortured for the rest of their respective lives. Civilians are also affected by other forms of disasters like famine, disease, and impoverishment caused by certain things or events. Civilians have emotional problems with war and other terrible events as they hurt socially and psychologically. A big idea relating with this is PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) that was invented by american medics during the Vietnam war and applies to regular citizens if they were a witness to a terrorist attack. There are reasons behind why people are killed by political leaders as it related to paradoxical thinking, collective thinking, and sacrificial thinking. Purging and clearance is an evil way of trying to divide society into the good, kind people and evil people. An example of this was the crusader movement in medieval Europe where they divided the religions up and made them war against each other. Many of the atrocities committed are intended to serve a warning to people. The genocides have different variations.
The chapters 2 and 3 were about the conquests of the mongol empire and the crusaders and how war and genocide have a close connection to each other despite not every military conquest being a genocide. They talk about the three templates the Mongols used for the mass killings. The first one is presenting the target people with the choice of submitting to mongol overlordship or facing complete destruction. The second one is vanishing the people who resist subjugation but keep the useful craftsmen. The third and last one is “total elimination” which you can probably tell, kills everybody. It isn’t genocide as they didn’t target a certain group or race to eliminate. The Mongols used terror to rule their expansive empire by massacring large numbers of citizens no matter what race, gender or religion they were. The crusaders were soldiers of Christ. The crusaders used the opportunity of the pope blessing them and saying that no sin can be committed and raped, pillaged and murdered numerous people. The crusaders were known for their reckless actions throughout europe and some popes did try to control the violence but some advocated as they sent the knights all the way to Spain. The crusaders did commit numerous genocides as they had to purge the unchristianlike population of muslims as genocide means killing people for their beliefs, race or gender. The Mongols conquests were hard to define as genocides despite their cruelty. They used killing as a method for the construction of the empire, terrorizing, expand the empire, and inporcorportate people of different cultures into the empire. The crusaders killings in the near east was pretty much a genocide as they murdered anybody that wasn’t a christian but a muslim or a jew as seen in jerusalem and beziers raids. The Mongols did keep craftsmen, artisans and merchants in some
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